(Source: Narratology and the Death of Stories - David M. Boje

New Mexico State University - Paper for presentation to the Ohio Discourse Conference - May, 1999)


Table Two: Four World Hypotheses of Stephen Pepper



Analytical Theories

Synthetic Theories




  1. Root Metaphor: Similarity
  2. Explanation: order and function are real; disorder and dysfunction unreal or exceptions.
  3. Exemplars: Plato, Aristotle
  4. Categories:
  • Immanent Formism - Theories of ideal types and classifications
  • Transcendent Formism - Blueprint growth models; ideal plans.
  1. Truth Theory: Correspondence - Mirror theory from metaphor to reality.


  1. Root Metaphor: Historic Event in the present.
  2. Explanation: Only horizontal theory; focus on change and novelty in the unfolding immediate event.
  3. Exemplars: Pragmatists like Peirce, James, Bergson, Dewey & Mead
  4. Categories:
  • Quality (spread, change, & fusion)
  • Texture( strands, contexts, referents)

5. Truth Theory: Operationalism - verifiable hypotheses and working theories.




  1. Root Metaphor: Machine
  2. Explanation: Elements are parts in a mechanistic, spacio-temporal framework.
  3. Exemplars: Descartes, Galileo, Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Berkeley & Reichonbach.
  4. Categories:
  • Configuration of parts
  • Lawfully ordered
  1. Truth Theory: Causal Adjustment - Abstract general terms and formulae.





  1. Root Metaphor: Integration
  2. Explanation: Historic events are steps in organic process toward ideal progress (thesis-antithesis-synthesis of Hegel).
  3. Exemplars: Hegel, Schelling, Green, Bradley, Bosanquet & Royce.
  4. Categories: Fragments result in nexuses, leading to contradictions, and an organic whole
  5. Truth Theory: Coherence - each level of integration resolves contradictions of the levels below.