"Postmodern Détournement Analysis of the
Popular Mechanics Spectacle using
Stories and Photos of the
Festive Community Life of Nickerson Gardens"
Author: DAVID  M. BOJE

  Submitted September 2, 1999, Published Feb 2000
in EJ-ROT Electronic Journal of Radical Organization Theory Vol VI (1).

http://www.mngt.waikato.ac.nz/research/ejrot/EJROT(newdesign)Vol6_1_front.asp

Abstract

INSTRUCTIONS: Waving cursor across photo brings up caption. Stories and photos are from Katz's May 1997 (press here to see original version) Popular Mechanics article (left side) and from Boje's field notes on Nickerson Gardens (right side).  Please compare the Popular Mechanics article (left) with my fieldwork stories and photos (right). Or, read left all column images and stories first to the end or read right ones first.  Or read left then right in each section, or right then left. It's up to you to decide how to read my juxtaposition of spectacle and festival.


 
 
Popular Mechanics Spectacle
Nickerson Festival
LAPD training hard for urban combat
David Boje dressed as clown leading parade
The noise of the city at daybreak mixes with the sounds of the locking and loading of Heckler and Koch MP5 submachine guns and the slamming of double banana-clip magazines into CAR-15 assault rifles as nearly 60 cops mill about a rooftop in Los Angeles. They are preparing for urban combat.  Lt. Tom Runyen, commander of the Los Angeles Police Department Special Weapons and Tactics (LAPD SWAT) platoon, walks confidently amid his men. Wearing grayish-blue fatigues, black Kevlar vests and Fritz helmets, they fill their Benelli automatic 12-gauge shotguns with 00-buckshot magnum shells, pack hand-toss flash-bang devices into the pouches of their body armor and recheck voice-activated helmet radios. 

Nearby, other officers busy themselves by securing high-tension ropes to the reinforced rear bumpers of 
unmarked navy blue Chevy Suburbans packed with rubber-coated ladders, specialized entry tools and battering rams. 
 

Runyen is weaving his way toward Sgt. Al Preciado, a 31-year veteran and the unit's senior sergeant, when his cellphone rings. "It's hot and heavy," he tells Preciado. "It's a go!" 

The noise of the community after school mixes with the sounds of size 24 clown shoes thumping and slamming on the sidewalk and the joyous chatter of Nickerson Gardens mothers, kids, and students from Loyola Marymount University as the festive parade of nearly 60 people wind their way through the streets and backyards of the gardens. Professor Boje, clown-professor of the College of Business and consultant to the Nickerson Gardens Resident Management Corporation (NGRMC) walks confidently amid his children. Wearing blue hair, red and white checkered jacketand a red clowns' nose, he has filled his pockets with lolly pops, bubble gum, and a squirt gun disguised as a lapel flower. He does hand-tosses of the candies from his clown shorts pockets.
Nearby, other college students busy themselves by securing candy, adjusting their clown uniforms. One students crosses the street to make sure she has locked her Chevy Convertible which the has packed with coloring books, crayons, and face paint for community kids that wanted it.
Boje is weaving his way towards Ms. Nora King, a grandmother, founder and now Pesident-elect of the NGRMC. Nora is on the phone. "It's great the faculty and students have come to do something for the kids, a Halloween parade," she tells a Mother. "It's a go!"
 
This is purportedly a Night Shot of Nickerson Gardens
Nickerson Gardens Resident Management Graduation
Nerve-jangling incendiary devices and an armored battering ram (below) enable LAPD SWAT to always make a grand entrance. Nerve-jangling shouts of joy at the NGRMC graduation and (below) a Harley Electroglide Classic enable Boje to always make a grand entrance.
LAPD/SWAT/CRASH Armored Battering Ram
Professor David Boje's Harley Electroglide


 
 
Popular Mechanics Spectacle
Nickerson Gardens Festival
Next stop: the Nickerson Gardens projects, one of the most crime-ridden and lawless public-housing projects in America. The LAPD's elite SWAT platoon is about to execute a search warrant on the notorious Bounty Hunters, a drug gang known for its penchant for violence and fondness for AK-47 assault rifles. "They are ruthless and heartless," says an officer assigned to the LAPD Citizen Resources Against Street Hoodlums (CRASH) unit, which has asked for SWAT's help in serving a search warrant. "They'll open up on anyone at the drop of a hat." 

The SWAT vehicles leave headquarters in downtown Los Angeles without fanfare and at top speed. Cruising south down the Harbor Freeway, the motorcade of Suburbans and marked cars exits in Watts, where they proceed toward the targeted location slowly and cautiously. Armed gang lookouts, equipped with cellphones and beepers, stand at every corner. After crossing 112th Street and entering the graffiti-tagged 1057-unit housing project, the convoy splits into five elements. 

It's showtime. 

Next stop: The Nickerson Gardens community, the largest public housing development west of the Mississippi river. The NGRMC first graduation class is about to begin phase two of HUD Secretary Jack Kemp resident empowerment and economic development initiative. Nickerson Gardens is known for its penchant for grassroots organizing. "Their hearts are full of love for their community," says a student tutor assigned to the LMU Educational Participation In Communities (EPIC) unit which was asked by NGRUM for help in setting up a tutoring program. "Students will tutor any kid at the drop of a hat."

The Halloween parade vehicles leave LMU without fanfare; Professor Boje heads off at top speed on his HAWG. Professor Judith White in her Toyota. Cruising south down the 405 Freeway, then easy on the new Airport Freeway the motorcycle and students in cars proceed to the parade location with abandon. Mothers stand on the steps of the NGRMC looking out for the arrival of the professors and students. Boje's Harley is equipped with an FM radio and tape cassette. He plays his usual tune: "Born to Be Wild!" After entering the gardens he pauses to admire the Halloween decorations the students have put up. 

It's playtime.
These SWAT units are at a bank, not at Nickerson Gardens
A Nickerson Gardens child and a College of Business student
SWAT broke the stalemate when two men brandishing AK-47s and protected by ballistic body armor pinned down police who responded to a bank robbery in affluent North Hollywood. People broke the stalemate when LMU student brandishing Face-Paint responded one child's request to have her face painted in her community in Nickerson Gardens.


Popular Mechanics Spectacle
Nickerson Gardens Festival
One element races out of its Suburban and gains entry into a ground-floor apartment using a Jaws of Life tool to quickly remove an iron gate from its mount. The loud burst of a flash-bang device resonates through the air, as do shouts of "This is the police. Lay down and place your hands over your head!" 
 
 

    At that moment, in a different row of apartments, another team leaps from its Suburban. One officer attaches a heavy-duty rope and chain to the iron bars of a front-door gate as his comrades in arms line up against the house. The Suburban takes off in a furious exit, yanking off the iron bars with violent ease. Officers fire several Starflash rounds from their Remington shotguns into a bathroom window. This causes sparkling fireballs to ricochet wildly throughout the room. The shots are intended to dissuade the suspects from flushing their dope down the toilet. The door to the location is hammered open by a battering ram, and several flash-bang devices are tossed in for good measure. 
    In a matter of minutes, three suspects are lying face up on the lawn, their hands cuffed and weapons trained at them. As CRASH officers, FBI agents and narcotics detectives search the targeted locations for the Bounty Hunters' cache of drugs, cash and weapons, 
    Runyen walks briskly from location to location to ensure that his officers are safe. "10-David, roger," he says, repeating his call sign into his radio as he walks toward the location where the drugs and guns were finally found. "Any units have a problem and require my attention?" 
    A small group of U.S. Navy SEALs observing the tactical choreography with Popular Mechanics is eager to see how the SWAT team applies its building-entry skills. The Navy observers are visibly impressed. "These guys are damn good," says one SEAL. "They were inside and in control in the blink of an eye." 
    More than $2000 in cash, crack and marijuana, 10 guns and three suspects are the dividends from the early morning warrant on the Bounty Hunters. But before the detectives and federal agents begin their work for the day, Runyen has ordered his officers back to Metro. 
    SWAT isn't responsible for the subsequent investigation and legal proceedings against the suspects. Their job is getting in like lightning, securing and disarming the bad guys, and then getting out so that the detectives and investigators can do their jobs. They are precision surgeons who employ special weapons and tactics to overpower, deter and dissuade heavily armed criminals, psychopaths and terrorists. 
    Every major police department in the United States, and throughout the world, possesses an elite tactical unit called upon to end hostage ordeals, deal with barricaded perpetrators and execute high-risk warrants against the most desperate and dangerous of armed criminals. Yet, as we found when we accompanied them on several warrant-serving missions, in the world of police tactical units, there is LAPD SWAT and there is everyone else.

One faculty member races out of her Toyota and gains entry into the ground-level of the NGRMC, converted from apartments into their corporate offices. She needs no key to enter since the iron gate is open to anyone who comes to help the community. There is a lot of activity as students and volunteer mothers' chatter resonate through the air as do shouts of "The kids will be coming home for school any minute, get these decorations up. Get into your clown make-up!" 
      At that moment, another faculty member, leaps from his HAWG. He opens up the luggage case, pulls out his clown shoes, clown pants, blue hair, clown paint and red nose. He places his cycle helmet and leather jacket in the case, slams it shut, locking it quickly.  His clown comrades are already lining up, but he says "before the parade, we got to play with the kids. The mothers made punch. Let's head to the backyard. It's playtime!" 
    The backdoor to the NGRMC is wide open, held their by an eager mother, camera in hand. 
    In a matter of minutes the first three kids run eagerly around the building to find out what is going on.  Some arrive in costumes, others have none. The students quickly fill the kids hands with candy and the mothers pass them hot dogs and punch. 
    NGRMC volunteer mothers walk quickly from place to place to insure each student and child is getting enough to eat. "David [Boje] are you getting enough to eat?" He responds with his Healthy, Happy and Terrific greeting then heads off to where the hot dogs and potato chips are piled two feet high. 
    A small group of Mothers are huddled with toddlers in doorways. They are not sure if small kids are also invited.  The volunteer NGRMC Mothers observe their reluctance. "These hot dogs are real good!" says one volunteer. "Toddlers barely old enough to walk were outside and eating hot dogs and chips with both hands. 
    More than 2,000 pieces of candy distributed. These are the dividends from the after-school Halloween parade.  But before the faculty and students end their service work for the day, Boje orders them back into the NGRMC offices. 
    NGRMC isn't responsible for the subsequent hyper-activity and tooth decay that will surely follow such merriment. Their job is getting faculty, students and Universities to teach the kids good study skills, and then help them learn to use computers and get interested in college. Kids are precious resources to the Nickerson Gardens community and the Halloween Parade is a NGRMC tactic to empower and persuade kids armed with pencils and university folks armed with knowledge in psychology and mach to get introduced to each other. 
    Every major University in Las Angeles, and throughout the world, possesses eager faculty and students ready to be called upon, to deal with kids eager to learn, and Mothers who are desperate to help their kids succeed against all odds. That is the mission of the NGRMC, in a world of resident empowerment, there are Mothers and children and there is everyone else. 


 
LAPD Sniper
Loyola Marymount University management students set up for Face Painting
Special entry tools and weapon-mounted flashlights, controlled by pressure on the grip, are among the innovations introduced by LAPD SWAT. Special face painting tools and designs, controlled by applying fingers on the faces of children, are among the innovations introduced by the LMU Business College students.


Popular Mechanics Spectacle
Nickerson Gardens Festival
By big-city standards, LAPD SWAT is a relatively small unit–only 67 officers with a lieutenant as commanding officer. A sergeant commands each squad, which consists of two 5-man elements, and each element is commanded by a senior lead officer. All officers are expertly trained assault specialists, and several members are cross-trained as snipers and observers. Of the 60 SWAT operators, 16 are snipers. Of the six SWAT sergeants, two are snipers. When not on a tactical job, SWAT officers carry out anticrime assignments in uniform or as plainclothes men in unmarked police cars. One of their busiest roles is issuing high-risk warrants to the city's most dangerous felons–a task that has become more hectic, voluminous and dangerous in recent years. 
    LAPD SWAT team members have always taken great pride in the state-of-the-art firepower they carry. "Our weapons are the currency of our profession," says one SWAT sergeant. The side arm carried by all LAPD SWAT officers is the Colt government model .45-cal. automatic. The .45-cal. is far more daunting than the 9mm automatic carried by the rest of Los Angeles's Metro Division.
By Fortune 500 standards NGRMC is a relatively small corporation - Nickerson Gardens Resident Management Corporation (NGRMC) incorporated in 1989 with Ms. Nora King as its founding president. Formal training and acknowledgment came form Housing Authority when in 1991 Nickerson Gardens and Estrada Courts became first to communities to complete training to be corporations (HACLA 1991 Annual Report, p. 8). Nora King implemented the first corporate headquarters, converting several units of public housing into corporate offices. In 1991, NGRMC was awarded a "Feasibility Study of Tenant Management" and from Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and Health and Human Services (HHS) $400,000 grant. With this grant the Food Bank, Construction Company, and Transportation Company were formed.  Transportation Company had 14 vans and drivers plus radio dispatch taking residents to job and medical appointments by 1994 (Source, Dual Management Workbook, 1994, p. 15. Copyright NGRMC).  A draft of June 30, 1992 LMU press release reports "residents plan to open and operate a Laundromat, food co-op, and health care center, a month other businesses" (p. 3). 


SWAT Team weapons Armory
Ms. Lucilia Hooper ready to pass out Food Bank supplies

Many of the SWAT team's weapons have been modified by the platoon's armorer.
Ms. Lucilia Hooper volunteers her time to keep the Food Bank open. 


Popular Mechanics Spectacle
Nickerson Gardens Festival
 SWAT chose the heavy-caliber weapon because it was found that on tactical deployments where lethal firepower is needed, bullet mass, diameter and momentum matter a lot more than a bullet's design, velocity and kinetic energy. 
    It was also found that on combat shooting courses, officers could shoot better with the Colt .45 than they could with any other weapon tested. Yet, even though the caliber of the weapon was suited for SWAT's needs, the weapon still did not meet SWAT standards. Like almost everything else that the unit possesses, the Colt .45s were modified by the platoon's armorer. Modifications included fixed high-visibility sights, a light 4-pound trigger pull, lowered ejection port, beveled magazine well, polished feed ramp, throated chamber and ambidextrous safety latch for lefthanded officers. LAPD SWAT was also the first police force to introduce a small flashlight to the frame of the weapon. It is activated by a pressure switch mounted on the grip. 
    For dynamic assaults and entries, the unit's primary tool is the Heckler & Koch MP5 9mm submachine gun, universally acknowledged as the Rolls-Royce of submachine guns. The MP5 is the mainstay entry weapon of just about every SWAT unit in the United States and just about every police tactical team in the world. It is one of the most accurate, durable and reliable weapons ever designed, and it's much lighter than most of the other submachine guns around. The fact that it fires with a closed bolt affords greater accuracy–even when fired in the full-auto mode. 

    The only thing that many senior SWAT officers didn't like about the weapon was its caliber. To increase its stopping power, SWAT policy is that the weapon be fired at full auto, in 2-shot bursts at ranges of 10 yd. or less. The support weapon used by SWAT is the highly reliable Colt CAR-15 5.56mm assault rifle, the assault rifle of choice among much of the world's special-forces community. Runyen and his senior sergeants carry CAR-15s. 

    SWAT uses two shotguns. The Remington 870, a pump-action 12-gauge workhorse that is one of the most popular shotguns in law-enforcement service today, was the first shotgun issued to SWAT officers in its early years. But its pumping action was found to be cumbersome, especially during the chaos of a prolonged close-range firefight. They remain in use, but are mainly deployed for firing diversionary munitions, such as the highly effective Starflash, or for blowing doors off their hinges. 

Not many people know that Nickerson Gardens was named after William Nickerson Jr., who in 1925 founded Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company in Los Angeles, the first and largest Black-owned Insurance firm in LA. NG opened in 1955 and with 5,000 residents including 3,000 children living in 1,056 housing units on 68.8 acres of land is the largest development west of the Mississippi (Source NGRMC Dual Management Training Workbook, copyright NGRMC, 1994). 
Phase One of Resident Management is residents forming Resident Advisory Councils (RAC) to receive training in how to plan, organize, and manage their community and to give input to the Housing Authority. "The Purpose of RAC is to stimulate economic, educational, social, and quality of life initiatives" (copyright 1994 Dual Management Workbook, p. 14). In Phase Two, the RAC's incorporate to become their own Resident Corporations, called "Resident Management Corporations." RMCs are directed to do business development, education, job training and development and other self-help initiatives (See Federal Register Vol. 59(92) May 13, 1994, page 25248).  NGRMC incorporated in 1989 to form the Nickerson Gardens Resident Management Corporation (NGRMC). 
      Not many know that in 1991 Nickerson Gardens became one of the first public housing communities in LA to enroll in HUD Secretary Jack Kemp's Phase One resident initiatives (phase one is forming Resident Advisory Councils). As of 1994, there were 383 around the country. 
    When Nora King became RMC's first President and CEO in 1991, she formed a Transportation Company (with buses and drivers), a Construction Company (to bid on Housing Authority building and renovation contracts), a Food Bank, a Riordan Computer Learning Center (where the first tutors from LMU went to do tutoring with the kids after school). And the Tutoring Program (in partnership with Loyola Marymount University) and carried on still by Campus Ministries and the Sursum Corda student service organization. (Source, NGRMC Dual Management Workbook, copyright 1994, NGRMC, p. 17). 
    Most of all Nora King wanted from this Business College professors and the LMU Business College some help in developing a business plan and strategy for the NGRMC
    On August 20, 1992, the NGRMC submitted a proposal to Housing Authority City of Los Angeles (HACLA and its CEO Joseph Schuldiner) for NGRMC to be a subcontractor of "all management and maintenance functions with HACLA). 

Dual Management Workshop - Reach for your Goals
Although assaults generally take place at ground level, LAPD SWAT also trains for airborne attacks (above). Once deployed, officers stay in contact with voice-activated communications gear mounted on their helmets. Although service learning takes place at a grassroots, we help people reach for their goals (above). Once we deployed our clown costumes we got real clear.
Two clown professors prepare to go to Nickerson Gardens


Popular Mechanics Spectacle
    Nickerson Gardens Festival
 Today, SWAT's two main shotguns are the Italian-made Benelli 12-gauge M1 Super 90 shotgun and the Benelli 121-M-1 recoil-operation semiautomatic shotgun. "The Benelli is a masterpiece of ballistic handiwork," says a SWAT officer, effortlessly inserting shells into his weapon as he prepares for the day's action. "It is comfortable to fire, accurate and it fits our needs perfectly." Officers zero the Benelli sights for a center hole at about 150 ft., with 1-ounce slugs and patterned for various distances with 00-buckshot magnum ammunition. Virtually all of the Benellis are fitted with a mini-flashlight attachment. 

    In D Platoon, as the unit is officially designated, there are 12 observers/snipers. The unit is used for, among other things, VIP protective details and for rescue situations such as when a barricaded perpetrator is holding hostages. Part sniper and part tactical officer, a D Platoon officer is also responsible for providing suppressive fire at ranges of 50 yd. or greater during live-fire engagements. Depending on the task at hand, the officers will carry an M16A2, CAR-15 5.56mm or bolt-action Remington Model 700 .308-cal. sniper rifle with a 3x9 scope. 

     LAPD SWAT snipers are legendary in the American police community, and as a result of the platoon's contact with units around the world, their reputation has carried into the international police community as well. Their primary weapons are the American-produced .308-cal. and .223-cal. Special Marksman scoped bolt-action rifles by Robar. "They are the finest pieces of precision sharpshooting equipment available today," one SWAT sniper tells us. For night operations and fire-suppression missions, snipers will often switch to the equally lethal Heckler & Koch GSG1 7.62mm police sniper rifle, an automatic weapon. 

    Just as there are no average weapons in LAPD SWAT, there are no average shots. Weapons proficiency isn't just a requirement. It's a religion. Each officer attends a minimum of four days of training each month qualifying with the .45, during which he will fire an average of 200 rounds. Besides the three basic drill courses that the officers must score highly on, they are also trained in advanced tactical drills, such as shooting on the move, engaging moving targets, 1-hand shooting, pistol retention drills, transition drills (from shoulder weapon to .45), malfunction drills, multiple-target drills, speed reloading, flashlight technique, prone positions, kneeling positions, barricade positions, target selection problems and hostage-rescue targets.

(November 5, 1992 Inter-Office NGRMC Memo) "Yesterday, Judith White and I met with the Father Koppes, the Dean of the School of Education at LMU… we outlined a program where 9 LMU students would come to NG once a week… The dean asked about supervision for the students. I suggested that Georgina in the RMC learning lab could supervise them along with Brenda  [Jackson]…Georgina could work with Brenda and do a day or two day on-site orientation [with the LMU students]…Herb Medina, a math professor, Judith White, a management professor and I have been working together on this project…There is a list of schools Brenda Jackson and I visited to promote the program (It includes Flounoy Elementary, 112th Elementry, Markham Jr. High, Jordan H.S. and Locke H.S.). E.g. November 6, 1992 Inter-Office NGRMC Memo from me to Ms. Nora King "Tutoring Program. Monday is the College of Education, department meetings about offering course credit (or not) to LMU education majors who would be tutors at Nickerson Gardens." It was a no vote, so we decided to go to the students and faculty. There is there the story of Sursum Corda founding and above it a an article by Professor Judith White explaining the founding of what Dr. White lists as "the Nickerson Gardens Tutoring Program." It lists the number of Professor Herbert Medina of the math department of LMU, who was one of the original tutors and with Judith White (College of Business), and myself got the program initiated. I will ask Professor Viki Graf, who went around to the schools (see below) if the schools are still doing this. I recall bringing this issue of the Loyola to the Sursum Corda president and meetings at asking if they would take up the "Nickerson Gardens" tutoring program as a service project. And they did, but may now have forgotten its founding or that it was Ms. Nora King and her NGRMC board that got it going and Ms. Pam Griffin and her NGRMC board came to the campus to recruit students. I have a letter dated November 11, 1992 to Father Koppes, S.J. Dean of School of Education from Nora King. It reads "I write to attempt to come in agreement with respect to the participation of Loyola Marymount University students in the Tutoring project which has previously been discussed with you.  If you agree we could seek to recruit the students now, so that the project could begin in January, 1993. 
    Thanks Professor Vicki Graf of the Education College, who went to every single elementary and middle school around NG, explained the program, and invited principals and counselors to send students to the Nickerson Gardens Tutoring Program. This was in Fall of 1992, and I recall going to these same schools with RMC staff and board members to make this same appeal. The plan called for three five-person teams. 


 
Ms. Nora King Founder and current President of NGRMC
Popular Mechanics Spectacle
Nickerson Gardens Spectacle
  In terms of personal equipment, SWAT officers can handle any contingency that comes their way. Each officer is issued a 2-piece Nomex flame-retardant combat suit, specially adaptable load-bearing gear and Point-Blank Tac vests with insertable ceramic plates to meet any high-velocity ballistic threat. Standard SWAT headgear, in addition to the black balaclava, is a black Fritz helmet equipped with an integrated Motorola personal radio earphone/microphone combination. SWAT also deploys special tactical poles with mirrors on the ends for use in around-the-corner tactical situations inside or around buildings. 
Unlike virtually every police tactical unit in the United States, LAPD SWAT does not employ ballistic body bunkers when making tactical entries. "We find the shields to be cumbersome and not in sync with our mission," explains a SWAT sergeant, as he suits up for a warrant. "On our entries, our officers need to focus their energies on who they are up against, not thinking about getting shot." But contrary to the popular belief that SWAT cops are trigger-happy Rambos, the purpose of having SWAT respond is not to end a job with weapons ablaze and a high body count. The use of lethal force, in fact, is a last resort. 

    "We are here to save lives," says Runyen. "But this is deadly business, and my guys have to know that there will come a time when they'll need to pull the trigger, and they'll need to do so based on their instinct and the fact that they feel the bad guy is threatening them or someone else." 
    As the record shows, their overwhelming firepower, continuous proficiency training and focus-on-the-job attitude makes for a winning team. In its 26-year history–more than 1000 missions–LAPD SWAT has become the world's most admired special weapons and tactics team. But more importantly, the team has never lost a hostage. 

"Where do guns and drugs come from" askes Nora King. "Nobody here has a factory to make guns and drugs. Where do they come from?" 
       "Beginning with the controversial police shooting in November 1991 of twenty-eight-year old Henry Peco during a blackout at Imperial Courts, the residents had been inundated with news media and politicians. About two weeks before the first verdicts, members of the Crips and Bloods rival gangs at the Imperial Courts, Nickerson Gardens, and Jordan Downs projects drafted a treaty based on an Israeli-Egyptian peace agreement, announced a truce, and effected a moratorium on inter-gang killings. Then the riots/uprising/rebellion  happened; presidential hopeful Bill Clinton toured the area. (From "People of Watts," by Ntozake Shange, a poem inspired by Dana Lixenberg's photographs, in VIBE, issue and volume number (November 1993), p. 79 --- now part of an Art Exhibit Announcement 1998 for exhibit May-June, 1999). 
     Recommendation from Professor Boje to the NGRMC: Set up A Press Conference and Invite Popular Mechanics and College Presidents Tell them that using "project" in their releases and web documents, not including your side of the story, is politically incorrect and offensive to your empowerment. Stress you are about community and relations in the Gardens, not some project. Tell the stories, we know, that NG did not riot and loot after the verdict. Ask why this side of the story was not told. Ask for magazine space to tell your side. 
    For the record when most every LA County community rioted, at Nickerson Gardens, the mothers kept the Food Bank open and the SWAT team out. There was no looting or rioting at Nickerson Gardens. "Could Popular Mechanics be trying to sell guns?" "Is Nickerson Gardens being storied in ways that allow LAPD weapons budgets to be approved? - Professor David Boje.


ANNOTATED REFERENCES USED TO CONSTRUCT THIS ARTICLE

Boje, David M.

Boje, D. M. Boje, D.M. & Rosile, Grace Ann Boje, D.M., White, Judith. & Wolfe, Terance J. Brown, William Derrida, Jacques Debord, Guy Debord, Guy and Gil J. Wolman Katz, Samuel M. King, Nora NGRMC Dual Management Workbook Plant, Sadie Wallace, Jonathan See (home page) Consult <teaching materials> for more on Nickerson Gardens Oral History project. This is a project to get the oral history documented so that a counter-story can be told of life in the Nickerson Gardens community. A life that is quite festive, in my experience. - D. Boje.