Summer 2018:

Field work in Tennessee:

Spring 2018:

End of year Carroll Research Lab Group party:

Naima Khan's PhD defense and graduation with doctoral hooding:

Spring break visit to Gold King Mine. On August 5, 2015, an EPA team investigating the Gold King Mine as a source of metals inadvertently triggered a release of 3 million gallons of acidic, mine-influenced waters into the Animas River (EPA, 2016). Orange-colored, iron oxide along Animas River banks suggests that mine drainage may still be impacting the River.

KC Carroll worked with Sonoma Elementary students learning about STEM fields, and the entire 5th grade learned about soils and water science while visiting NMSU in March of 2018.

Carroll Lab worked with geothermal researchers from around NM at the EPSCoR Workshop Geothermal Team Meeting, April 20-22, 2018.

Back left to right: Jesus Gomez-Velez, Jeff Pepin, Jim Witcher, KC Carroll, Melinda Horne, Jon Golla. Front left to right: Christopher Kubicki, Laura Crossey, Karl Karlstrom, Mark Person.

Fall 2017:

On September 27th, Jesus D. Gomez-Velez visited and gave a talk, titled Leaky Pipes Everywhere! Understanding Connectivity Along River Corridors.

Dr. Jesus (Chucho) Gomez-Velez is an Assistant Professor of Hydrology in the Dept. Earth & Environmental Science at New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology focusing on surface and groundwater interactions. For more information, see

Then on October 13th, Scott Jasechko visited and gave a talk, titled Global streamflow and groundwater ages. Dr. Jasechko visited from Department of Geography, University of Calgary and is now at the Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, U.C. Santa Barbra. For more information, see and

Also, on October 24th KC Carroll presented on "Isotopic, Geochemical, and Modeling Evaluation of Source Water, Extraction Potential, and Potential Impacts of Using Brackish Water for Desalination in the Mesilla Basin, NM" at the BOR Workshop "CENTER FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF ALTERNATIVE WATER SUPPLIES Opportunities for collaborative research between NMSU and the Bureau of Reclamation". See

Congratulations! Justin Milavec completed his MS degree. He is on the job hunt, but may also want to do some more travel in Europe.

Another congratulations! Logan Bridges also completed his MS degree. He plans to search for a job, and may continue his oil & gas geology work while searching for a hydrology and environmental science job.

Summer 2017:

Lab attends the New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute's 62nd Annual New Mexico Water Conference on August 15-16, 2017, at New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM where we had ~7 posters and KC Carroll discussed sources and impacts of using brackish groundwater.

KC Carroll also received the Early Career Research Award at the Convocation in August.

May 2017:

KC Carroll was a awarded Early Career Research Award for the 17th Annual University Research Council for Exceptional Achievements in Creative Scholarly Activity at NMSU. Also, promotion to Associate Professor and Tenure were granted to KC Carroll.

April 2017:

We visited the Oak Ridge National Lab, and began our research on hyporheic zone (stream-bed pore water zone of groundwater & surface water exchange) characterization.
We purchased electrical resistivity equipment for nondestructively imaging the subsurface.

March 2017:

KC Carroll visited Arizona State University Environmental Engineering Department and presented "Water & Energy at the Nexus of Hydrology & Environmental Engineering" for the Department Seminar.

February 2017:

We had two invited visitors give talks:
February 3 - Mark Engle, Research Geologist and Chief of the USGS produced and injected waters project, Dept. of Geological Sciences, U.S. Geological Survey/University of Texas at El Paso.
"Water quality impacts and non-impacts associated with the development and extraction of shale gas and tight oil resources"

February 24 at 3:30PM- David Benson, Director of the Hydrologic Science and Engineering Program, Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines.
"Eliminating the "Scale Effect" from Reactive Transport Simulations: A Purely Lagrangian Particle Tracking and Reaction Method Applied across Core- to Field-Scales at the Schoolcraft (MI) Aquifer Bioremediation Experiment."

January 2017:

Adam Dettmer's MS thesis paper was just published in the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology on situ chemical oxidation of 1,4-dioxane ‪ with download links below: &

KC Carroll visited San Diego State University Geology Department and presented "Subsurface Contaminant In-Situ Chemical Oxidation: Coupling of Hydrogeology and Geochemistry" for the Department Seminar.

December 2016:

Lab attends the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco and KC Carroll Chairs session "Advances, Breakthroughs, and Challenges in Hydrogeologic Sciences."

Denis O'Carroll's annual trip with contaminant remediation researchers to Chinatown in San Fransisco at AGU:

Summer 2016:

KC Carroll receives the 2016 Patricia Christmore Faculty Teaching Award through NMSU, which is an annual award that recognizes and rewards superb junior tenure-track faculty members for excellence in teaching.

The Lab is setting up several new mass spec chemical analysis instruments including a QTOF-MS, quadropole-MS, and MALDI-TOF-MS.

New Water Resources Research paper compares XMT with tracer for interfacial area measurement ‪#‎EMSL‬ ‪#‎PNNL‬ ‪#‎NMSU‬ paper:

May 2016:

New research on metal-free persulfate catalysis and emerging contaminant oxidation for water treatment and in situ chemical oxidation ‪#‎SERDP‬ @SERDP_ESTCP and ‪#‎NMSU‬ supported research paper with download links below: &

April 2016:

Steven Maestas defended his thesis and graduated with his MS degree.

Permian Basin paper is the most downloaded article from Chemical Geology in the last 90 days ‪#‎NMSU‬ ‪#‎USGS‬

March 2016:

Presented at #1,4-dioxane remediation research meeting at Shaily Mahendra's lab @UCLA ‪#‎SERDP‬ @SERDP_ESTCP ‪#‎NMSU‬ 2 papers linked below: &

February 2016:

Two new papers on produced water on oil and gas in west Texas and southeast NM focusing on geochemistry.
1) 1st paper on high-resolution volatile organic chemical composition data for ‪#‎fractured‬ ‪#‎shale‬-oil produced water characterization in ‪#‎Permian‬ Basin ‪#‎oil‬ production ‪#‎NMSU‬ Research-Gate Download Link:

2) 2nd paper on ‪#‎Permian‬ Basin brine geochem and hydrogeology New Mexico State USGS ‪#‎NMSU‬ ‪#‎USGS‬ &

January 2016:

New paper published on 2&3 Fluid-Phase Transitions and Fluid-Fluid Area in Soils ‪#‎NMSU‬ and

December 2015:

Lab attends the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco and

KC Carroll Chairs session "Advances and Breakthroughs in Hydrogeology" with Holly Michael (University of Delaware), Phoolendra Mishra (California State University Fullerton), and Bwalya Malama (California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo).

November 2015:

Congratulations! Spencer Willman completed his MS degree. He plans to do some international travel, and then he will be on the job hunt.

October 2015:

Las Cruces Sun News published a story about the research collaboration between PNNL and KC Carroll on developing environmentally friendly hydraulic fracturing for geothermal energy production. Pehr, D.J. (2015) Research on non-polluting geothermal systems. Las Cruces Sun News, October 27, 2015.

July 2015:

New text book on hydrogeology: “Flow Through Heterogeneous Geologic Media”:

Focus: This text compares the classical, homogeneous with stochastic approaches for applied problems, and should be appropriate for upper level undergraduate and graduate students.

Web links to the new book:

June 2015:

KC Carroll joined the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology Editorial Board as Associate Editor

Carroll lab also presented on using advanced oxidation process with graphene oxides at the The Association of Environmental Engineering & Science Professors (AEESP) 2015 Conference, which had a nice workshop discussion of "Grand Challenges" for environmental engineering.

May 2015:

Congratulations! Naima Khan and Adam Dettmer completed their MS degrees. Naima will begin the Ph.D. program, and Adam is on the job hunt.

April 2015:

Packing heat: New fracturing fluid makes untapped geothermal energy cleaner (Geothermal Fracturing Paper in Green Chemistry Journal)

Developing Enhanced Geothermal Energy: Most of the western US has enough geothermal heat and energy to support geothermal energy, but the few geothermal power plants that we have are located near natural faults allowing deep fluid and heat flow. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) are the future of geothermal, but they require hydraulic fracturing due to the naturally low rock permeability. Fracturing of geothermal has been limited to date due to the cost and uncertainty in our ability to use standard hydraulic fracturing fluids under the high temperature and pressure conditions required for geothermal.

Collaborative research between NMSU and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has discovered a new hydraulic fracturing fluid that easily fractures rocks under EGS temperatures/pressures, and it also represents a more environmentally-friendly alternative. This new technology uses switchable fluids that undergo phase change and form gels when they react with carbon dioxide, and they can reverse back to become dissolved in water when reacted with a mild acid. Removing fracturing fluid chemicals for reuse saves money and decreases residual chemicals left in the formation. The fracturing process is enhanced by gel formation within the subsurface and during the fracturing process. This process could reduce the amount of water and energy required for fracturing, and supports climate change mitigation by enabling geothermal energy production.

PAPER: HB Jung, KC Carroll, S Kabilan, DJ Heldebrant, D Hoyt, L Zhong, T Varga, S Stephens, L Adams, A Bonneville, A Kuprat & CA Fernandez (2015) Stimuli-responsive/rheoreversible hydraulic fracturing fluids as a greener alternative to support geothermal and fossil energy production. Green Chemistry Advance Online, March 25, 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C4GC01917B.

EDITORIAL: W Leitner, "The subject of 'fracking' in Green Chemistry", Green Chemistry, online March 31, 2015.!divAbstract

March 2015:

Lab attends the PITTCON 2015 Conference & Expo in New Orleans, LA, March 8 - 12, 2015.

Tim Willy presented his research on ion mobility spectrometry

January 2015:

KC Carroll was elected as Chair of the Groundwater Technical Committee for the AGU Hydrology Section Naima Khan was also elected as Student Representative for the Groundwater Technical Committee.

December 2014:

Lab attends the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco and

KC Carroll Chairs session with Geoffrey Bohling from University of Kansas on “Recent Advances in Groundwater Hydrology”

November 2014:

Lab attends the New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute's 59th Annual New Mexico Water Conference on November 18-19, 2014 in La Fonda on the Plaza, Santa Fe, NM

Mark Engle (USGS and UTEP) presents collaborative produced water research at the Geological Society of America Annual Conference in Vancouver BC Canada

October 2014:

KC Carroll attends Congresswoman Michelle Lujan Grisham's Water Innovation Summit on Tuesday, October 14, 2014 at the UNM Student Union Building and

Carroll, K.C. and P. Xu (2014) Quantifying Potential Environmental Impacts and Water Treatment Requirements for Wastewater Produced in Oil & Gas Operations. Invited Presentation: Congresswoman Michelle Lujan Grisham’s Water Innovation Summit Tackling Our Water Resource Challenges by Utilizing Cutting-Edge Technologies and Innovation, Oct. 14, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.

August 2014:

Applied Geochemistry Journal cover image.

The August issue of the Applied Geochemistry Journal contains the paper Wellbore Cement Fracture Evolution at the Cement-Basalt Caprock Interface during Geologic Carbon Sequestration and its associated cover art. This study describes the behavior of composite Portland cement-basalt caprock cores with fractures as well as neat Portland cement columns, and examines the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores with defects during geologic carbon sequestration. In addition, the results demonstrate that XMT imaging coupled with computational fluid dynamics modeling represent a powerful tool to visualize and quantify fracture evolution and permeability change in geologic materials and to predict their behavior during geologic carbon sequestration or hydraulic fracturing for shale gas production and enhanced geothermal systems. The work was developed through a multi-institution research collaboration between the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, New Mexico State University, and EMSL.

July 2014:

New Lab! We moved the chemical analysis lab over to Skeen Hall.

June 2014:

KC Carroll visited China with Provost Dan Howard and Rich Pratt. We landed in Beijing and took the bullet train to City of Shijiazhuang in Hebei Province. We have an ongoing Confucius Center with Shijiazhuang Institute of Science and Technology. Next, we met with Agricultural University of Hebei (campus is in Baoding of Hebei Province). Then, we met with Hebei Normal University (brand new campus is in City of Shijiazhuang in Hebei Province). Last, we met with China Agricultural University or CAU (in Beijing; we visited both the east campus (engineering and water focus) and the west campus (agriculture focus)). We talked about developing a NMSU campus at Agricultural University of Hebei, developing some teaching exchange programs with Hebei Normal University, and starting a joint research center focused on hydrology with CAU.

Phoebe Nicholls, MS student working with Dan Cadol from the Earth & Environmental Science Department at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, visited and worked with Barry to learn gas chromatography methods.

May 2014:

KC Carroll attended a Brackish Water Work Group that was initiated by New Mexico Environment Secretary F. David Martin (New Mexico Energy, Minerals & Natural Resources Department to examine the amount and availability of brackish water that could be used as an emergency or alternate water resource.

April 2014:

On April 9th, Peter J. Wierenga visited and gave a talk, titled Experiments and experiences at NMSU and the U of A, as an Invited Lowenstein Lecture. Dr. Wierenga has led an extensive career focusing on water movement, chemical transport, water management, vadose zone characterization. He is currently an Emeritus Professor in the Soil, Water, and Environmental Science Department at the University of Arizona where starting in 1988 he was Department Head. Before that he was a Professor for 20 years in the Department of Agronomy and Horticulture here at NMSU. For more information, see and

March 2014:

Velimir V Vesselinov visited and gave a talk titled From pore-scale processes to field-scale contaminant remediation. Dr. Vesselinov is a research scientist in the Computational Earth Science at Los Alamos National Laboratory ( | |

Adam and Naima presented posters at the NMSU Graduate Research and Arts Symposium (GRAS)

February 2014:

James Fulton and Connor Wagner presented posters at the Annual New Mexico Chile Conference James took 1st place, and was the winner of the 2014 New Mexico Chile Conference Graduate Student Research Poster award.

December 2013:

Lab attends the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco and

KC Carroll Chairs sessions – “Overcoming Remediation Barriers and Improving the Understanding of Processes Controlling Contaminant Transport” and “Coupled Hydraulic, Geochemical, and Geomechanical Processes in CO2 Injection and Storage.”

Summer 2013:

KC Carroll and Omar Holguin form joint laboratory as a core lab for NMSU student's to learn chemical analysis and to support research efforts.