3D Argand Diagram for Basic Components

A Simple Harmonic Component (SHC) \(\psi_0(t;a_0,\omega_0,\phi_0) = a_0 e^{j( \omega_0 t + \phi_0)}. \)

An AM Component \( \psi_0(t;a_0(t),\omega_0,\phi_0) = a_0(t)e^{j(\omega_0 t + \phi_0)} \) with Gaussian AM.

A FM Component \( \psi_0(t;a_0,\omega_0(t),\phi_0) = a_0e^{j[\int_{-\infty}^{t}\omega_0(\tau) d\tau + \phi_0]} \) with sinusoidal FM.

An AM--FM Component \( \psi_0(t;a_0(t),\omega_0(t),\phi_0) = a_0(t)e^{j[\int_{-\infty}^{t}\omega_0(\tau) d\tau+ \phi_0]} \) with Gaussian AM and sinusoidal FM.