Two Conventions for Relating the Real Observation and the Latent Signal

Simple Harmonic Component, Top: \( x(t) = \Re\lbrace z(t)\rbrace \), Bottom: \(x(t) =\left[ {z}(t)+{z}^*(t)\right]/2\).

AM Component, Top: \( x(t) = \Re\lbrace z(t)\rbrace \), Bottom: \(x(t) =\left[ {z}(t)+{z}^*(t)\right]/2\).

FM Component, Top: \( x(t) = \Re\lbrace z(t)\rbrace \), Bottom: \(x(t) =\left[ {z}(t)+{z}^*(t)\right]/2\).

AM-FM Component, Top: \( x(t) = \Re\lbrace z(t)\rbrace \), Bottom: \(x(t) =\left[ {z}(t)+{z}^*(t)\right]/2\).

FS Square Waveform, Top: \( x(t) = \Re\lbrace z(t)\rbrace \), Bottom: \(x(t) =\left[ {z}(t)+{z}^*(t)\right]/2\).

FS Sawtooth Waveform, Top: \( x(t) = \Re\lbrace z(t)\rbrace \), Bottom: \(x(t) =\left[ {z}(t)+{z}^*(t)\right]/2\).

FS Triangle Waveform, Top: \( x(t) = \Re\lbrace z(t)\rbrace \), Bottom: \(x(t) =\left[ {z}(t)+{z}^*(t)\right]/2\).