Ô  14. Postmodern Theatrics 

SUMMARY of TD14: Postmodern Theatrics. Transorganizational consulting work by Boje, Boal, and Saner draws on theatre work by Deborah Geis, Aristotle, Burke, & Goffman, and Theatre of Consumption work by Fuat & Dholakia, and Society of the Spectacle work by Debord.
Similarities to other TD methods:
  • %  13. Spectacle, Festival, & Carnival
  • ¥  8. Frames: Aristotle, Burke, Clegg Goffman
  • a  4. SEAM
  • O 1. Community Organizing
  • 11. Restorying
  • [  9. Mythmaking
  • I  16. Critical Theory

Dissimilar to other TD Methods:

  • ?  7. Reengineering
  • {  6. Appreciative Inquiry

  main site http://web.nmsu.edu/~dboje/TDgameboard.html 


If you do not know postmodern theory, start here.
How to become a postmodern theorist





What is Metatheatre? Metatheatre is a multiplicity of theatres (formal, informal, off and on stage) simultaneous in a TAMARA of sites; with starring and supporting cast of characters who (1) affect the quality of products and services, (2) enhance or lower productivity, and (3) constitute the concentrated and diffuse spectacles of theatrical performances experienced by employees, investors, customers and vendors. Metatheatre is defined here as the multiple and contending theatres that constitute organizations. The Metatheatre can be defined as a network of simultaneous, TAMARA-esque stage performances. In your organization you can never see all the theatre performed; it is occurring simultaneously on different stages; some you see and perform, but other acts you hear about from colleagues, vendors, and customers.  Metatheatre Intervention Method is designed to be a companion to the SEAM (Socio-Economic Approach to Management) Method (Savall, 1974, 2000; Savall, Zardett & Bonnet, 1999).

Metascripts is defined as the multiplicity of scripts, mostly unwritten ones, that constitute the micro and macro structure, behavior, social dysfunctions, and hidden costs/performance potential of complex organizations. Metascript is a multiplicity of scripts that define the field of actions, where strategies are plotted, rhythms find their time patters, characters get trained in their lines, and many feel con-scripted and imprisoned in their character roles and dialog; there are themes of working conditions for on and off stage performers, and some of the mindsets are incommensurate with other mindsets; a mess of directors, script editors, and characters learning and refusing their scripted lines compete for time on the center stage. See Metascript for more on thistopic.

SEPTET (7 dramatistic elements), by directing a cast of (1) characters, in strategic (2) plots, which create oppressive (3) themes. Leadership is produced, distributed, and consumed in (4) dialogs (in talk, in stories, and in discourses). Leadership affects and is affected by the temporal (5) rhythms (seasons, cycles, recurring patterns). Leadership is the championing some (6) frames (ideologies) over others. And, leadership is most of all the (7) spectacle theatrics (four types), a dynamic hybrid of (a) concentrated corporate culture theatre, (b) diffuse theatre on the global stage, the (c) integration concentrated and integrated, and the more and more frequent (d) megaspectacle of corporate scandal turned by media frenzy and spectator appetite into mass entertainment. See SEPTET at http://cbae.nmsu.edu/~dboje/septet/ for more on this topic.

Applications of Theater of the Oppressed to Transorganizational Development Work

    What is TD ICEND Theater (TD-ICEND-Theater)? TD ICEND Theater is based on the groundbreaking "Theater of the Oppressed" work of Brazilian activist Augusto Boal. Originally developed to help peasants explore solutions to their own problems, it is now used all over the world for social and political activism. We think it is a great tool for changing entrenched and problem-ridden stakeholder network dynamics. Postmodern theatrics can be applied to TD networking dynamics to make political economies of collective strategy more visible. "Who gets to script the TD strategy? How are collective dynamics linked to power? who is marginalized in the writing and revisions of networking scripts? What plotline is being collectively enacted (e.g. romantic, tragic, comedic, ironic)? How can problem-saturated plotlines be restoried and rescripted?" Postmodern theatrics stresses how a community of stakeholders creates a scripted direction in theatrical dramatics. These directions can be oppressive and mono-logic or mire dynamic and poly-logical. We assume dynamic multi-organization networks act out a TAMARA of scripted tales and repetitive motifs and that these embedding scripts of enactment can be changed-
      Note: Grace Ann and I offer "TD ICEND Theatrics Workshops" and labs to  corporations, community organizations, educational institutions as well as supply chain networks, industries, and other multi-stakeholder groups who want to restory and rescript their networking relations and collective dynamics. Our TD ICEND Role Playing Workshop is based upon Theater of the Oppressed and work in Postmodern Theatrics, including TAMARA. We start by collecting repetitive stories of problematic dynamics, coach stakeholders on how to stage them to a stakeholder audience, and do stop-action critical postmodern self-reflective "spec-actor" critique, and end with staging restoried scriptings of improved collective dynamics. Our aim is to move from "spectacle theatrics" to more "festive theatrics."
    What is Theater of the Oppressed? (press here) The Theater of the Oppressed is a vast array of theater games, techniques and exercises designed to break down the barriers between "actors" and "spectators." In the late 1970s, Augusto Boal's groundbreaking text on theater theory, Theater of the Oppressed was published. there is a link between Postmodern Theatrics and Spectacle/Festival work. According to Boal, the separation between the "actor" and the "spectator" in traditional theater is disempowering. Spectacle Theater is inherently oppressive, a cultural form of imperialism that was contributing to the de-intellectualization of the native. In TD work the application is to transform human relationships in TD theater from the "monologue" of traditional OD performance into a "dialogue" between multiple stakeholders and the monologue oppression ensues. The idea is to develop TD Postmodern Theatrics workshops that extend ICEND 9Interactive, Communicative, Experiential, Network Development) through live-stage interaction, dialogue coach, critical thinking dramatizations, stop-action, restorying, rescripting, and fun. "Spect-actors" in TD theatrics workshops have the opportunity to both act and observe, and then restory to engage in self-empowering processes of festive dialogue that help foster critical thinking and large systems change.
  • Augusto Boal (1931- ) is Brazilian director, playwright an theoretician.
    Boal Work On Line
  • Postmodern theatrics is a training ground for playing out oppressive network dynamics, doing stop-action critical analysis and deconstruction, and experimenting with new restoried and resituated relationship patterns. TD theatrics is a combination of short impromtu and scripted exercises involving the live audience in TAMARA-productions of the wandering audience (Boje, 1995) combined with the group of stakeholders being brought together periodically to discuss the collective dynamics they are experinecing and propose script changes in the next wave of TAMARA stagings.  During the events, the consultants help stakeholders use postmodern, deconstruction and critical thinking skills to assess root causes of problem-saturated networking dynamics in their community or industry.



    1. Characters 1. Characters
    2. Plots 2. Plots
    3. Themes 3. Themes
    4. Dialogs 4. Dialogs
    5. Rhythms 5. Rhythms
    6. Frames 6. Frames
    7. Spectacles 7. Spectacles



    What is a TAMARA NETWORK
    TAMARA networks have multiple and poly-voiced (polyphonic) stakeholder organizations in dynamic interaction. Each is a storytelling organization embedded in TAMARA network with multiple, parallel story logices.  A TAMARA network has flexible links among its stakeholders, as they chasing competing storylines and logics. In a TAMARA network knowledge and collective system dynamics are rapidly changing as new stories are told and reinterpreted to alter patterns of interaction. Different storytellers story the netwrok dynamics differently based uon their net-position and thier unique experience history in the network patterns. Someone for example, who wandered through links A-B-N-K will have a different story to tell then someone who experienced A-B-O-K strands. The probelm in a TAMARA Network is there is no universal story-reader to tell one universal history or give one monological, unilateral, and linear historical reading of the network dynamics.  The network is polyphonic (multi-voiced) and polysemous (many meanings). it is in these networks, that we think TD ICEND Theatrics Workshops can have an impact. What matters in such workshops is find a way to deepend collective understanding of network dynamics, competing logics, and the depth of human relationships. The focus is on how people narrate their experience and in experiential enactments of the theatrics of network dynamics. As always we assume "storytelling is the preferred sensemaking currency of human relationships among internal and external stakeholders" to these networks (Boje, 1991: 106).

    TD Workshop ICEND steps have been adapted from NYC Theater of Oppressed approach to theatrics (press here):

      • 1) Workshop stakeholders are asked to volunteer to tell the story of an  incident of oppression in a transorganizational setting that has happened to them, and that is likely to  recur.
      • 2) When all the stories have been heard, the stakeholder group votes and chooses one story that has evoked the greatest collective resonance and network dynamics. The protagonist of the featured story then chooses fellow stakeholder-participants to play the other characters of the story, and together they improvise the scene.
      • 3) Next, the protagonist makes an exaggerated image, involving the  whole body, of how he/she felt and saw each of the other characte during the preceding scene, and gives them their corresponding image. They, in turn, take it, wear it, and freeze. The protagonist finally makes an  image of how he/she felt and saw him/herself, and freezes. Keeping their images as masks, the characters then begin to improvise the same story, repeating the same dialogues and interactions.
      • 4) Each of the other stakeholder-characters then gets to create a set of images that all  will wear during successive improvisations. Each time, the dialogue and the interactions are filtered by the masks. The number of improvisations depends on the number of characters.
      • 5) When all the images have been generated, the "collective" scene is improvised once  more. This time, however, the characters can alternate between the masks that they have worn; they can chose at any given moment the one that feels most comfortable to them or that best helps them to obtain what they want.
      • 6) At this point, the study of a circular, closed situation ends, and there begins a new moment: attempts to transform the situation itself. The characters shed all masks and improvise the scene one last time. But now, members  of the audience become "spect-actors." They can yell Stop and intervene in the action at any given moment by replacing the protagonist in order to show him/her alternatives to the behavior illustrated in the scene, alternatives that they feel are more empowering.

     Finding Festival Theater in Midst of Mono-Spectacle Theatrics - In TD1 spectacle theatrics in various systems and networks it is assumed the domination and command thinking prohibits the oppressed from being who they are and from exercising their basic human rights as festival beings.  Adopting a more festival theatrics allows voices that are not being heard to be expressed and stories that defy verbalization to get acted on the postmodern stage. In TD2, new bridge work is experienced between oppressor and oppressed to remove separation between actor (the one who acts) and spectator.  Here are additional resources:
    • Brief introduction to Augusto Boal (press here).
    • Interview with Boal (press here).
    • Spunk NYC archive - "What is Theater of the Oppressed (press here). Focus is to move away from spectacle theater: 1)  analyze and discuss problems of oppression and power; and 2) explore group solutions to these problems. This language is accessible to all. "Theater of the Oppressed Laboratory, founded in New York City in July 1990, is to provide a forum for the practice, performance  and dissemination of the techniques of the Theater of the Oppressed. We work with educators, human service and mental health workers, union organizers, and community activists who are interested in using interactive theater as a tool for analyzing and exploring solutions to problems of oppression and power."
    • List of Boal resources and links (press here).
    • Mixed Company is a Toronto consulting firm offering workshops (press here). For example, Cobblestone Youth Troupe is a high-risk street youth outreach forum-theatre project of Toronto's Mixed Company, continues to enjoy a successful fourth season in 1999.  Mixed Company hosted The 8th International Ripple Effect Festival, bringing together over 450 artists from 22 different countries over 11 days. There was a total of 273 presentations: theatre performances, workshops, lectures, films, videos, art exhibitions and music.
    • Headlines' website. The Company was  founded in 1981 by a group of politically active artists (press here).
    • Applied and Interactive Theater Guide Search Engine (press here).
    • List of groups/firms that specialize in Training and Development (press here).



Then try these:

  • Brief Overview by Mary Klages  (press here)
  • Postmodern Organization Theory - a quick guide for the uninitiated (press here)- contains good overview of affirmative and skeptical positions including annotated bibliography and teaching/training materials.
  • Get to know that particular theorists - Contemporary Philosophy, Critical Theory and

  • Postmodern Thought (University of Colorado at Denver) (press here). There is a long list, start with ---
  • For chart contrasting PM, CT, PS, and Social Construction. and Semiotics (press here)
    • Underlined names have direct links below (just press on name).
      • 7 Post-structuralists and post-modernists - 1997 (press here) for more material on Delueze, Lyotard, Bourdieu, Bataille, Baudrillard, Debord (my favorite), Lacan, Foucault, Derrida. Also Bakthin, Bell (postindustrialism), Giddens and others.
        • Walsh and Middleton Interview - Giddens says there is no postmodernity (press here).
    • POSTMODERNISTS, Roland Barthes , Jean Baudrillard, Gilles Deleuze   Fredric Jameson, Jacques Lacan, Jean Francois Lyotard, Michel Foucault (his genealogical period), Edward Said, Guy Debord. Two of my favorite writers are Steve Best and Douglas Kellner. (press here) for copy of Best & Kellner paper on Debord & spectacle.
        • You will notice that there are critical/skeptical postmodernists and affirmative postmodernists.  The theatrics we shall apply work out more romantic (world is getting better) or tragic (world is going to hell) plot structures and characterizations. You can see these in what follows:
          • For the Dark Side of Postmodern, consult - Panic Encyclopedia: The Definitive Guide  to the Postmodern Scene Arthur Kroker   Marilouise Kroker   David Cook (press here).
          • For the Affirmative Side of Postmodern, consult - Postmodern Dreaming - Richard Wilkerson (press here). And for organization application (press here).
          • General postmodern social theory references (press here).
          • FREDRIC JAMESON AND THE LIMITS OF  POSTMODERN THEORY by Sean Homer (press here).
          • The Need for Transcendence in the Postmodern World By Vaclav Havel (press here).
          • Postmodern Blackness essay by [Bell Hooks] (press here).
          • To use the Postmodernism Generator to constrct a random postmodern essay (press here).
    • CRITICAL THEORISTS the Frankfurt School, Jurgen Habermas (pro-modern), and of course Karl Marx (press here) for Critical Theory references and overview by Dr. Siebert. See in particular (press here) for one page overview. (Press here) for links to Habermas versus Frankfurt School ways. (press here) for CT applications.
    • POSTSTRUCTURALISTS Jacques Derrida,  Paul de Manm Hykua Jrusteva
      • For more on deconstruction- See "Deconstruction on the Net" -  Derrida On Line (press here). (bibliography).
      • For more on de Man - Paul de Man - See "Aesthetic Ideology" Edited and with an introduction by Andrzej Warminski (press here)
    • INTERDISCIPLINARY - POSTMODERN SEMIOTICS Mark Gottdeiner's (1995)  book , Postmodern Semiotics: material Cutlure and the Forms of Postmodern Life (UK/Cambridge: Blackwell) draws connections between Charles Peirce, Derrida's poststructuralism approach, and postmodern culture work.  Gottdeiner prosposes a socio-semiotics theory as an alterative to Jamison's approach to relating postmodern culture and the political economy. (Press here) for review of Semiotics for Beginners (more links).  He askes the semiotics question "In what sense can I say that meaning resides in the material world? (p. 171). He answers "social groups of all kins, including status and political collectivies as well as classes, are understood to be the bearers of meaning" (p. 172). He attempts to combine Barthes' "tanslinguistics" (separates the object from its embedded ideological web) and Peirce's "roles in systems of signification" in connotative meanings. Objects have a first-order denotative functional meaning and a second-order imputation of meaning (connotative) within social contexts. Working with the two semiotic traditions allows Gottdeiner to critique CT's false consciousness theory (p. 180) as well as postmodern culture critics (p. 182). He does this by tracing how subculture industries (e.g. punk rocker and other music movements) at first offensive to mainstream sensibilities, bet incorporated by the same mainstream culture industry.  "That is, if subcultures can take the objects of mass culture and provide them with second- and other-order meanings, mass culture producers can do the same to the personalized objects of subcultures" (p. 183). He thereby explains ideological control over revoolutionary counterculture subculture movements.
  • NEW - Extensive links  to Cyborg, Hypertext Culture, Critical and Postmodern Philosophy, Chaos & Complexity Theory in Education, and much more (press here).
  • THEATRICS EXTENSIONS - This applies to theatrics in the sense that in postmodern subcultures consumers seek temporary life mode spectacles. As Firat and Dholakia (1998) argue in Consuming People: From Political Economy to Theaters of Consumption (London/NY: Routledge). "As signifying subjects, consumers are producing and will increasingly produce the varied meanings and identities they wish to play with and experience through these theaters of consumptions" (p. 159. Obvious examples are going off to Las Vegas, the Renaissance Faire, or Disney Theme Park to play a temporary dress up role in some safe and standardized spectacle/theatrics of consumption.
    • What is postmodern drama? (press here). "The label is often applied to contemporary works, in particular those works which are considered experimental. But work classification should rely on more than a date, and the post-modern label has been used to describe much literature dating before the 1960's - Edgar Allen Poe and William Shakespeare, for example. Post-modern literature is described as that literature which abandons the preconceptions of an inherantly good person, or in other words of people as being born 'good', as opposed to evil or 'bad'. "

Lessons from Theater: Beyond Metaphor Symposium
Academy in Chicago 1999 (press here).

  • Tamara and other Postmodern Theatric(s) Boje (press here) for storytelling organization theory work.
  • Theater in Management: An Analysis of the Modern Play of Management Mary Jo Hatch
  • Commonalities Between Off-Off-Broadway Theater and Contemporary Organisational Consulting: Manifestations of Postmodernism -- A social Gestalt Perspective Raymond Saner
  • Actors and Organizational Development Consultants: Parallel Skill Sets Leslie Stager Jacques
    This session presented ways in which postmodern theater is being used in organizational consulting, some at the organizational and others at the TD level. My own work is in Theater of the Oppressed and the postmodern theater work of Deborah Geis (1993) and Rodney Simard (1984).
Storytelling Organization is rooted in the Theatrics of the Tamara play - See Boje (1995) - press here for overview material of Storytelling Organization Theory.
And  for contrasts of various narrative thoeries, storytelling work applied to organizations, and interdisciplinary work consult the following:
    • David M. Boje, Rossana C. Alvarez and Bruce Schooling 1999 "Reclaiming Story in Organization Narratologies and Action Sciences" Chapter Six in Westwood & Linstead's Language and Organization Book, draft dated September 29. Three excerpts are available: (press here) for table of various disciplines of narrative. (press here)) for contrast oflsingle-discipline approaches of Appreciative Inquiry, Restorying, Emery Search Conference, and Hopewell's Congregation. And (press here) for contrasts of several interdisciplinary approaches including Narrating Organization, Storytelling Organization, and Embedded Narrative discussed in this tutorial. .
  • Tamara of many simultaneous stages
  • Wandering audiences
  • Reunite consumption and production
  • Immerse (become part of the experience of consumption) instead of separate or detach
  • Become part of the context
  • Co-determine them-selves and self-images
  • Client wants immersion into the consumption experience of ODC. , instead of standing aloof and observing "reality out there"
  • Participate in the spectacle of ODC
  • E.g. Enclave ODC disperse it as different stages with different themes of localized immersion
Narrating Organization - Czarniawska’s (1997) exemplary study of the theater metaphors (or dramatics as she terms it) is highly complex. She relies upon combining the work of pragmatism (e.g. Rorty, Habermas, and Peirce) with social constructionism and the dramaturgical approach of Roland Barthes (1966/1977) and Burke (1945/1969). (press here) for contrasts of several interdisciplinary approaches including Narrating Organization, Storytelling Organization, and Embedded Narrative discussed in this tutorial. .
    What follows is my own (1999 Spectacle & Festival book) integrative reading of Burke’s (1945/1969) scene-ratio, Henderson’s (1988) plots applied to Burke, and Czarniawska’s (1997) application to organization studies. It is, I think, pragmatic theatrical program applying the semiotics of scene-act ratios to management, organization, and change theory. For more on this (press here).
  1. Act (action)-focused plots = realism
      • Incessant action (movement) effect or constant talk and high mobility define community.
      • In contextualism, the context of action is an unfolding web of act to other act relationships without teleology.
      • Novelty and random events happy and account for change.
  2. Agent (actor)-focused plots = idealism
      • I act in the interests of others, not my own or as my own agent.
      • Modern leadership theory assumes leaders (and entrepreneurs) act as their own agent, while managers act as the agent of their firm.
      • Leaders are the change agents.
  3. Scene-focused plots = materialism
      • Static role structure (good guys/bad guys; progressives/conservatives) or changing alliances.
      • Modern organization assumes determinism of environmental factors (resources, technology, change, and competition).
      • The environment (i.e. place) determines change.
  4. Agency-focused plots = pragmatism
      • Follow unwritten rules, repeat successful tricks or constantly improvise and muddle along.
      • Modern leader theory assumes managers are agents of a "super person" corporation, a legal person (or agent of anthropomorphic corporate-is-person).
      • Change is the result of the system of capitalism self-steering its invisible hand in the market (that is without place).
  5. Purpose-oriented plots = mysticism.
      • Simple, coherent, constant motives or more highly complex coping situations of enlightened or dark spirituality.
      • Modern management theory assumes people are purpose seeking, acting consistent with their motivations and values.
      • Change is a spiritual, visionary, and even charismatic event.
Postmodern theater defuses the relation between characters (defined in Burkean terms as scene-act combinations) and their theatrical roles (in scenes) by radically disrupting and violating spectator expectations of how scene-act ratios (e.g. theatric dramas) are to be read and applied. This playing with theatric expectations provokes spectators to explore the existential crisis of a deconstructed spectacle-mask, and this may provoke spectator self-reflection on parodies of spectacle-acts constructing fetish-as-realism and exaggerated-scenes of materiality equated as happiness.

The Knight Errant's Ideology of Adventure David M. Boje and John T. Luhman Academy presentation in Chicago 1999 (press here). I acted scenes for Merchant of Venice, which to me encapsulates the modern MBA program. Shakespeare wrote about the clash of feudal and merchant/commercial capitalisms. The ideology of adventure is a term used by Michael Nerlich in his two volume series. In my view, Shakespeare has written about the theatrics of capitalism.

EDUCATION: The Postmodern Classroom as a Three Act play (Guild, Corporate & Postmodern Theater)

  • Postmodern Management and Writing Practices in the Electronic Corporation/Classroom James E. Porter (press here) - Relates to work by Rosile & Boje (see our web page). See Academy 1999 and Teaching Materials links.
  • Rosile, Grace Ann, & Boje, David M. (1996). Pedagogy for the postmodern management classroom: Greenback Company. In David M. Boje, Robert P. Gephart, Jr., & Tojo Joseph Thatchenkery (Eds.), Postmodern management and organization theory (pp. 225-250). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.



Call for paper Theatre of Capitalism Stream CMS 2003

See Special 2001 Issue of JOCM Journal of Organizational Change Management which was the result of the Discourse Conference in the UK

  • Dramaturgy and Organizing Guest Editors:  Dr Cliff Oswick (King’s College, University of London, UK), Dr David Grant (University of Sydney, Australia) and Dr Tom Keenoy (King’s College, University of London, UK)


Boal, Augusto (1979). Theatre of the Oppressed. Translation by Charles A. & Maria-Odillia Leal McBride. Originally published in Spanish as Teatro de Oprimido in 1974. NY: Theatre Communications Group.   

Boje, D. M. (1999). Notes on the Strategic Stories fad: Disney and other storytellers. June 29. http://cbae.nmsu.edu/~dboje/strategic.html 

Boje, D. M. (1995). Stories of the storytelling organization: A postmodern analysis of Disney as 'Tamara-land.' Academy of Management Journal. 38 (4), 997-1035.

Boje, D. M. (2000a). Global Theatrics and Capitalism. November 12. Web text accessed May 15, 2002 at http://cbae.nmsu.edu/~dboje/teaching/338/global_theatrics_and_capitalism.htm 

Boje, D. M. (2000b) "Spectacle and Inter-Spectacle in the Matrix and Organization Theory." Book chapter in Parker, Martin, Geoff Lightfoot, Matthew Higgins and Warren Smith (2001) Science Fiction and Organization, London: Routledge. 

Boje, D. M. (2000c). Theatrics of Leadership?Web text accessed May 15, 2002 at http://cbae.nmsu.edu/~dboje/teaching/338/leader_model_boje.htm 

Boje, D. M. (2000c) X,Y,Z model of leadership and Revolutionary Pedagogy. Web text accessed May 15, 2002 at

Boje, D. M. (2000d) “Using Narrative and Telling Stories” May 10. To appear in the Book: The Manager as a Practical Author Editors (David Holman and Richard Thorpe) Publisher: Sage. This is a quite practical piece, written for the practicing manager.

Boje, D. M. (2001a). Narrative Methods for Organizational and Communication Research. London Sage.

Boje, D. M. (2001b). Carnivalesque Resistance to Global Spectacle: A Critical Postmodern Theory of Public Administration. Administrative Theory & Praxis. Vol. 23 (3): 431-458.  

Boje, D. M. (2001c) Spectacles and festival of organization: Managing Ahimsa Production and Consumption  [Use ID=Aggie359 PASS=adventure]. Web text accessed May 15, 2002.

Boje, D. M. (2001d). Athletic Apparel Industry is Tamara-land. Tamara: Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science. Vol 1 (2), pp. 6-19. Web text accessed May 15, 2002.  

Boje, D. M. (2001e). Festivalism web site http://www.zianet.com/boje/1/ 

Boje, D. M. (2001f). Carnivalesque resistance to global spectacle: A critical postmodern theory of public administration. Administrative Theory and Praxis, 23 (3), 431-458. http://cbae.nmsu.edu/~dboje/papers/carnivalesque_resistance_to_glob.htm  

Boje, D. M. (2001g). Flight of Antenarrative in Phenomenal Complexity Theory, Tamara, Storytelling Organization Theory

Boje, D. M. (2001h). Before the Story Can be Told: An Antenarrative of the World Trade Center and Pentagon Disaster; also see Hybridity Visuals Presentation in Netherlands.

Boje, D. M. (2001i) "Las Vegas Spectacles: Organization Power over the Body." M@n@gement, 4(3): 201-207. Special issue on Deconstructing Las Vegas. This article looks at spectacle impact on the body, and how women in strip club resist the male disciplinary gaze of the body.

Boje, D. M. (2002a). Critical Dramaturgical Analysis of Enron Antenarratives and Metatheatre. Plenary presentation to 5th International Conference on Organizational Discourse: From Micro-Utterances to Macro-Inferences, Wednesday 24th - Friday 26th July (London).

Boje, D. M. (2002b) Enron Metatheatre: A Critical Dramaturgy Analysis of Enron’s Quasi-Objects. Paper presented at the Networks, Quasi-Objects, and Identity: Reintegrating Humans, Technology, and Nature session of Denver Academy of Management Meetings. Tuesday August 13, 2002.

Boje, D. M. (2002c) Theatres of Capitalism. Book being published by Hampton Press (San Francisco). Available until publication, on line, at http://cbae.nmsu.edu/~dboje/theatrics/index.htm (password is required).

Boje, D. M. (2002d). Leadership Theatre Events. Contains guides fo Image, Invisible, and Forum Theatre

Boje, D. M. (2002e). What is Situation? Feb 19, 2002. http://cbae.nmsu.edu/~dboje/388/what_is_situation.htm#septet_table_1  Contains Septet table. 

Boje, D. M. (2002f). Leadership in a Postmodern Age: Notes on Enron  December 3, 2000; revised April 2, 2002 http://cbae.nmsu.edu/~dboje/teaching/338/leadership_in_a_postmodern_age.htm 

Boje, D. M. (2002g). Exercises in Games of Power and Leadership.  February 26. http://cbae.nmsu.edu/~dboje/388/games_of_power.htm Contains definition of Oppression, examples, and self-survey of oppression. 

Boje, David & Robert Dennehy (1999). Managing in the Postmodern World. Web text accessed on May 15, 2002 at  http://cbae.nmsu.edu/~dboje/mpw.html MWP Chap 3 Organizing. 

Boje, D. M. & G. A. Rosile (2002a). The Metatheatre Intervention Manual. To be published by ISEOR Research Institute of University of Lyon 2, France.

Boje, D. M. & G. A. Rosile (2002a). Theatrics of SEAM. Paper to be published in Journal of Organiztional Change Management Special Issue on Socio-Economic Approach to Management (SEAM), guest edited by Henri Saval.

Boje, D. M., Grace Ann Rosile, Rita A. Durant & John T. Luhman (2002). Enron spectacle theatrics: A critical dramaturgical analysis. Under review at Organization Studies, for special issue on organization theatre. 

Boje, D. M. ,G. A. Rosile, and Simon Malbogat (2000) "Festival, Spectacle and Carnival: Theatrics of Organizational Development and Change." Presentation to ODC division of Academy of Management, Toronto, August, 2000. 

      Burke, Kenneth (1945/1969). A Grammar of Motives. Berkeley, Ca: University of California Press.

      Czarniawska, Barbara (1997). Narrating the Organization: Dramas of Institutional Identity. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

      Demaray, John G. (1998). Shakespeare and the spectacles of Strangeness: The Tempest and the Transformation of Renaissance Theatrical Forms. Pittsburgh, PN: Duquesne University Press. This is about the relation of small spectacle stagings and main play.

      Geis, Deborah R. (1993). Postmodern Theatric(k)s: Monologue in Contemporary American Drama. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.

      Simard, Rodney (1984) Postmodern Drama: Contemporary Playwrights in America and Britain. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

      Whitmore, Jon (1994) Directing Postmodern theater: Shaping Signification in Perofmrance. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press. This book has postmod in the title, but is more of a structuralist work.

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