Table 11: ICEND - Interactive, Communicative, Experiential, and Network Development.


ICEND - A Term that David Boje and Michael Jones coined in 1982 to develop a story-based model of TD. The ICEND theory is that by convening people to interact, communicate their stories, and form common experience, a network for action and change develops (See Boje, 1982).


ICEND Model of Transorganizational Development

Three subsystems are formed. Subsystem One (outside process consultant) facilitates the formation of the second subsystem (internal problem solving networking cycle) so people can crystallize issues, identify leaders, form a temporary organization (of organizations) that will change the status quo response patterns of a TD1 (Subsystem Three: Extended Network Involvement Cycle).


Subsystem One: Outside Process Consultation Cycle


Subsystem Two: Internal Problem Solving & Networking Cycle


Subsystem Three: Extended Network Involvement Cycle

  Press to return to TD tables or to TD Game Board or  dfor a TD narrative.